Judea Pearl

Assessing Causality from Observational Data using Pearl's Structural Causal Models

Causality In 20th century statistics classes, it was common to hear the statement: “You can never prove causality.” As a result, researchers published results saying “x is associated with y” as a way of circumventing the issue of causality yet implicitly suggesting that the association is causal. As an example from my former discipline, political science, there was an interest in determining how representative democracy works. Do politicians respond to voters, or do voters just update their policy beliefs to line up with the party they’ve always preferred?
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